RBI MPC member questions inflation data: Why there is nothing really amiss with the existing CPI methodology


The idea of an inflation index is at all times going to be contentious in India provided that there are various costs throughout the nation and there’s no singular basket of commodities consumed by households. In truth, whereas we discuss of rural and concrete indices, this too is an approximation as a result of patterns range relying on location in addition to earnings ranges.

The supply of merchandise particularly within the farm phase varies otherwise throughout places and therefore don’t characterize the basket of all households. But, we have to have such an indicator and the Ministry of Statistics has this Shopper Value Index (CPI) which differentiates between whole and concrete and likewise comes up with a mixed index. There are additionally state indices which current the regional image.

Allow us to take a look at the October inflation numbers. The all India index confirmed 3.31 % the place rural had inflation of two.82 % and concrete 3.97 %. The inflation quantity on the state degree was as excessive as 6 % in Assam and 5 % in Uttarakhand and as little as -0.73 % in Himachal Pradesh. City Jammu and Kashmir had 6.9 %. Subsequently, the ultimate quantity is at greatest indicative of a proxy for the nation based mostly on varied statistical weights which have been utilized. This may at all times be an issue when elements like housing or meals merchandise are available the place costs range fairly drastically throughout areas. The identical holds additionally for gasoline merchandise and the place MRP idea doesn’t exist could be inclined to extensive variations.

Representational picture. Reuters

Lately, an interesting issue raised by a member of the MPC was whether or not the index is powerful sufficient and as a corollary there was a suggestion that we should always have a chain-weighted index the place these weights are modified repeatedly to replicate the basket. Right here weights are modified by taking a look at precise portions consumed and eradicating the results of random and seasonal elements. Whereas this sounds good theoretically, there may be two counter-arguments. The primary is that that is a method out and as soon as launched may be critiqued by others with different options. The weights are based mostly on a pattern which may be contested.

Second, altering base years and weights by altering the advanced basket is a horrendous activity and takes time – 2-Three years – as a result of by the point one modifications the weights, issues might have modified and part turns into irrelevant. That is the issue with the CPI which isn’t that particular to the Entire-sale Value Index (WPI). That is one purpose why weights need to be mounted over a time frame of say 5 years and can’t be performed each month or yr.

One other subject raised in the identical size is that the RBI’s inflation expectations survey tends to be backward-looking and folks reply to future inflation based mostly on previous inflation, which at all times tends to overstate the case. Therefore, it’s not stunning that this survey at all times factors to a grim future state of affairs which doesn’t materialise. That is attention-grabbing and results in two frequent reactions. The primary is that households at all times consider that the low CPI quantity put out by the federal government is drivel and that the price of dwelling has gone up by the next charge. When petrol or onions costs go up it impacts budgets fairly severely and when the ministry says that inflation in October was 3.31 % it’s laughable, as a result of all these year-on-year calculations make no sense when a family realises that the onion finances for a month has gone up from Rs 100 to Rs 150 and the petrol bought for Rs 1,000 has come down by a litre when the worth goes up by say Rs 4/litre.

Second, with regards to expectations who can resolve what is true? Can or not it’s economists sitting with fancy fashions who conclude that expectations have come down or gone up based mostly on their findings or households who’ve their pores and skin within the sport and have been paying extra for his or her groceries? This may at all times be debated as the 2 are fairly divorced from each other. Additionally, economists, as a rule, have alternative ways of coming to conclusions and the latest brouhaha on the previous sequence of GDP is a transparent case of how two units of analysts have come to extraordinarily totally different conclusions.

Subsequently, whereas the argument made that the CPI numbers must be checked out otherwise is appropriate, it ought to be reiterated that there isn’t any mounted rule for such indices which can at all times be open for a contrarian view. Households, particularly, won’t ever be capable of digest the idea of inflation coming right down to low ranges, as they appear again on the time when costs had been at a selected degree and cumulate inflation over say 5 years. Subsequently whereas the RBI could also be comfortable that it has averaged 4.5 % each year within the final Four years, family budgets are hit cumulatively by 18.eight % whereas incomes could not have risen on the identical degree.

In addition to, when households pay say salaries to home assist, the CPI idea won’t go down nicely for indexation and the thumb rule of 10 % applies. In such a state of affairs, the economist will probably be scorned for taking a really theoretical view which implies little on the floor degree. Additionally, with rates of interest coming down, the financial savings could make much less sense beneath these circumstances.

It may well therefore be argued that the prevailing method to calculating the CPI index is sweet sufficient and needn’t be modified presently. Possibly when there’s a revision we will contemplate different approaches just like the chain-weighted index to verify for the feasibility. There will probably be a problem of once more creating again sequence which can result in controversy however one ought to be ready for this. It could additionally make sense to discover different choices of weights utilized by different nation indices earlier than zeroing down on any particular methodology.

(The author is chief economist, CARE Rankings)



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